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The Buddha’s Last Words

Then the Buddha addressed Venerable Ānanda:


“Now, Ānanda, some of you might think: ‘The teacher’s dispensation has passed. Now we have no Teacher.’ But you should not see it like this. The teaching and training that I have taught and pointed out for you shall be your Teacher after my passing.”



This is similar to the idea of the Four Great references, and sets the scene for the First Council at which the teachings were recited. | Paññatto here means “pointed out” rather than “laid down”, as can be seen from DN 9:33.21, where the same phrase refers to the four noble truths.


After my passing, mendicants ought not address each other as ‘reverend’, as they do today. Āvuso is from the root āyu (“age”) and thus has a respectful sense and does not mean “friend” as it is often translated. Like bhante, it is an indeclinable vocative of address that may be used with or without the name (see eg. MN 5:31.2).A more senior mendicant ought to address a more junior mendicant by name or clan, or by saying ‘reverend’. A more junior mendicant ought to address a more senior mendicant using ‘sir’ or ‘venerable’. I render bhante as “sir” when it stands alone and “honorable” when it prefixes a a name. | Unlike bhante, āyasmā (“venerable”) is declinable, so it is used in parts of speech other than direct address. It is from the same root as āvuso but with a slightly more respectful tone, perhaps because it sounds more Sanskritic.


If it wishes, after my passing the Saṅgha may abolish the lesser and minor training rules. These are not defined here, and the senior monks at the First Council were unable to agree on them (Kd 21:1.9.3). Nonetheless, the Pali Vinaya consistently labels the Pācittiya rules as “lesser” (khuddaka; Bu Pc 92:2.2.22, Bi Pc 96:2.2.22, Pvr 1.1:219.3), which would make the Pātidesanīyas “minor” (anukhuddaka). The Sekhiya rules are also “minor”, but they were not at this point reckoned among the training rules for recitation.


After my passing, give the divine punishment to the mendicant Channa.” “Divine punishment” is brahmadaṇḍa. Channa features often in the Vinaya as a monk who refuses correction and acts disrespectfully. The Sangha had already imposed an act of “ejection” (ukkhepanīyakamma) on him due to his persistent bad behavior, but that was still not enough (Kd 11:25.1.1). The brahmadaṇḍa was imposed at the First Council (Kd 21:1.12.1), upon which Channa finally saw the error of his ways. Brahmadaṇḍa is encountered in a different sense at DN 3:1.23.21.


“But sir, what is the divine punishment?”


“Channa may say what he likes, but the mendicants should not correct, advise, or instruct him.” Vattabba in such contexts means “advise, correct” rather than more generally “speak to”. Thus the brahmadaṇḍa is not the “silent treatment”.


Then the Buddha said to the mendicants, “Perhaps even a single mendicant has doubt or uncertainty regarding the Buddha, the teaching, the Saṅgha, the path, or the practice. So ask, mendicants! Don’t regret it later, thinking: ‘We were in the Teacher’s presence and we weren’t able to ask the Buddha a question.’”


When this was said, the mendicants kept silent.


For a second time, and a third time the Buddha addressed the mendicants: “Perhaps even a single mendicant has doubt or uncertainty regarding the Buddha, the teaching, the Saṅgha, the path, or the practice. So ask, mendicants! Don’t regret it later, thinking: ‘We were in the Teacher’s presence and we weren’t able to ask the Buddha a question.’”


For a third time, the mendicants kept silent. Then the Buddha said to the mendicants,

“Mendicants, perhaps you don’t ask out of respect for the Teacher. So let a friend tell a friend.”


When this was said, the mendicants kept silent.


Then Venerable Ānanda said to the Buddha, “It’s incredible, sir, it’s amazing! I am quite confident that there is not even a single mendicant in this Saṅgha who has doubt or uncertainty regarding the Buddha, the teaching, the Saṅgha, the path, or the practice.”


“Ānanda, you speak out of faith. But the Realized One knows that there is not even a single mendicant in this Saṅgha who has doubt or uncertainty regarding the Buddha, the teaching, the Saṅgha, the path, or the practice. Even the last of these five hundred mendicants is a stream-enterer, not liable to be reborn in the underworld, bound for awakening.”


Then the Buddha said to the mendicants: “Come now, mendicants, I say to you all: ‘Conditions fall apart. Persist with diligence.’”


These were the Realized One’s last words. The commentary says this line was added at the Council.


The Full Extinguishment


Then the Buddha entered the first absorption. Emerging from that, he entered the second absorption. Emerging from that, he successively entered into and emerged from the third absorption, the fourth absorption, the dimension of infinite space, the dimension of infinite consciousness, the dimension of nothingness, and the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. Then he entered the cessation of perception and feeling. Even on his deathbed, the Buddha retains mastery over his mind.


Then Venerable Ānanda said to Venerable Anuruddha, “Honorable Anuruddha, has the Buddha become fully extinguished?” Following the commentary, which reads this as a question. Anuruddha was renowned for his psychic powers. Note that Ānanda and Anuruddha have immediately adopted the forms of address recommended by the Buddha above.


“No, Reverend Ānanda. He has entered the cessation of perception and feeling.”


Then the Buddha emerged from the cessation of perception and feeling and entered the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. Emerging from that, he successively entered into and emerged from the dimension of nothingness, the dimension of infinite consciousness, the dimension of infinite space, the fourth absorption, the third absorption, the second absorption, and the first absorption. Emerging from that, he successively entered into and emerged from the second absorption and the third absorption. Then he entered the fourth absorption. Emerging from that the Buddha immediately became fully extinguished.


When the Buddha became fully extinguished, along with the full extinguishment there was a great earthquake, awe-inspiring and hair-raising, and thunder cracked the sky. When the Buddha became fully extinguished, Brahmā Sahampati recited this verse:

“All creatures in this world Each of these characters reveal something of themselves in their verses. Sahampati, as a royal deity, emphasizes the universal nature of the teaching and the grandeur of the Buddha.must lay down this bag of bones. “Bag of bones” is a loose rendering of samussaya.For even a Teacher such as this,unrivaled in the world,the Realized One, attained to power,the Buddha became fully extinguished.”

When the Buddha became fully extinguished, Sakka, lord of gods, recited this verse:

“Oh! Conditions are impermanent, Less creative than Brahmā, Sakka repeats a famous verse spoken by the Buddha at SN 15.20:8.1 and DN 17:2.17.5.their nature is to rise and fall;having arisen, they cease;their stilling is true bliss.”

When the Buddha became fully extinguished, Venerable Anuruddha recited this verse:

“There was no more breathing Anuruddha was a reclusive meditator who specialized in mindfulness of breathing.for the poised one of steady heart.Imperturbable, committed to peace,the sage has done his time. He put up with painful feelingswithout flinching.The liberation of his heartwas like the extinguishing of a lamp.”

When the Buddha became fully extinguished, Venerable Ānanda recited this verse:

“Then there was terror! Ānanda has the most emotional reaction. While Anuruddha speaks only of peace, Ānanda empathizes with those who were distraught.Then they had goosebumps!When the Buddha, endowed with all fine qualities,became fully extinguished.”

When the Buddha became fully extinguished, some of the mendicants there who were not free of desire, with arms raised, falling down like their feet were chopped off, rolling back and forth, lamented: “Too soon the Blessed One has become fully extinguished! Too soon the Holy One has become fully extinguished! Too soon the Eye of the World has vanished!” Text omits “with hair disheveled” (kese pakiriya) when describing the shaven-headed monks.But the mendicants who were free of desire endured, mindful and aware, thinking, “Conditions are impermanent. How could it possibly be otherwise?”


Then Anuruddha addressed the mendicants: “Enough, reverends, do not grieve or lament. Did the Buddha not prepare us for this when he explained that we must be parted and separated from all we hold dear and beloved? How could it possibly be so that what is born, created, conditioned, and liable to wear out should not wear out? The deities are complaining.”


“But sir, what kind of deities are you thinking of?”


“There are, Ānanda, deities—both in the sky and on the earth—who are percipient of the earth. With hair disheveled and arms raised, they fall down like their feet were chopped off, rolling back and forth, lamenting: ‘Too soon the Blessed One has become fully extinguished! Too soon the Holy One has become fully extinguished! Too soon the Eye of the World has vanished!’ But the deities who are free of desire endure, mindful and aware, thinking: ‘Conditions are impermanent. How could it possibly be otherwise?’”


Ānanda and Anuruddha spent the rest of the night talking about Dhamma.

Then Anuruddha said to Ānanda, “Go, Ānanda, into Kusinārā and inform the Mallas: ‘Vāseṭṭhas, the Buddha has become fully extinguished. Please come at your convenience.’”


“Yes, sir,” replied Ānanda. Then, in the morning, he robed up and, taking his bowl and robe, entered Kusinārā with a companion.


Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinārā were sitting together at the meeting hall still on the same business. “Still on the same business” (teneva karaṇīyena) calls back to DN 16:5.20.1, where they were said to be “on some business” (kenacideva karaṇīyena). They had been discussing all night.Ānanda went up to them, and announced, “Vāseṭṭhas, the Buddha has become fully extinguished. Please come at your convenience.”


When they heard what Ānanda had to say, the Mallas, their sons, daughters-in-law, and wives became distraught, saddened, and grief-stricken. And some, with hair disheveled and arms raised, falling down like their feet were chopped off, rolling back and forth, lamented, “Too soon the Blessed One has become fully extinguished! Too soon the Holy One has become fully extinguished! Too soon the Eye of the World has vanished!”


The Rites of Venerating the Buddha’s Corpse


Then the Mallas ordered their men, “So then, my men, collect fragrances and garlands, and all the musical instruments in Kusinārā.”


Then—taking those fragrances and garlands, all the musical instruments, and five hundred pairs of garments—they went to the Mallian sal grove at Upavattana and approached the Buddha’s corpse. They spent the day honoring, respecting, revering, and venerating the Buddha’s corpse with dance and song and music and garlands and fragrances, and making awnings and setting up pavilions. An uplifting response to tragedy, full of beauty and celebration.


Then they thought, “It’s too late to cremate the Buddha’s corpse today. Let’s do it tomorrow.” But they spent the next day the same way, and so too the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth days. It seem unlikely that everyone simply forgot. It was probably the custom to wait seven days before the cremation.


Then on the seventh day they thought, “Honoring, respecting, revering, and venerating the Buddha’s corpse with dance and song and music and garlands and fragrances, let us carry it to the south of the town, and cremate it there outside the town.”


Now at that time eight of the leading Mallas, having bathed their heads and dressed in unworn clothes, said, “Unworn” is ahata, as at DN 14:1.33.9 and Kd 7:1.6.2.“We shall lift the Buddha’s corpse.” But they were unable to do so.


The Mallas said to Anuruddha, “What is the cause, Honorable Anuruddha, what is the reason why these eight Mallian chiefs are unable to lift the Buddha’s corpse?”


“Vāseṭṭhas, you have one plan, but the deities have a different one.”


“But sir, what is the deities’ plan?”


“You plan to carry the Buddha’s corpse to the south of the town while venerating it with dance and song and music and garlands and fragrances, and cremate it there outside the town. The deities plan to carry the Buddha’s corpse to the north of the town while venerating it with heavenly dance and song and music and garlands and fragrances. Then they plan to enter the town by the northern gate, carry it through the center of the town, leave by the eastern gate, and cremate it there at the Mallian shrine named Coronation.” “Coronation” is makuṭabandhana, “the binding of the crown”. The commentary says there was, fittingly, an auspicious decorative royal hall there; perhaps too the name was felt to pun with muktabandhana, “freedom from ties”.


“Sir, let it be as the deities plan.”


Now at that time the whole of Kusinārā was covered knee-deep with the flowers of the Flame Tree, without gaps even on the filth and rubbish heaps. I think sandhi here means “covered without gaps”.Then the deities and the Mallas of Kusinārā carried the Buddha’s corpse to the north of the town while venerating it with heavenly and human dance and song and music and garlands and fragrances. Then they entered the town by the northern gate, carried it through the center of the town, left by the eastern gate, and deposited the corpse there at the Mallian shrine named Coronation.


Then the Mallas said to Anuruddha, “Honorable Ānanda, how do we proceed when it comes to the Realized One’s corpse?”


“Proceed in the same way as they do for the corpse of a wheel-turning monarch.”


“But how do they proceed with a wheel-turning monarch’s corpse?”


“They wrap a wheel-turning monarch’s corpse with unworn cloth, then with uncarded cotton, then again with unworn cloth. In this way they wrap the corpse with five hundred double-layers. Then they place it in an iron case filled with oil and close it up with another case. Then, having built a funeral pyre out of all kinds of fragrant substances, they cremate the corpse. They build a monument for the wheel-turning monarch at the crossroads. That’s how they proceed with a wheel-turning monarch’s corpse. Proceed in the same way with the Realized One’s corpse. A monument for the Realized One is to be built at the crossroads. When someone there lifts up garlands or fragrance or powder, or bows, or inspires confidence in their heart, that will be for their lasting welfare and happiness.”


Then the Mallas ordered their men, “So then, my men, collect uncarded cotton.”


So the Mallas wrapped the Buddha’s corpse, and placed it in an iron case filled with oil. Then, having built a funeral pyre out of all kinds of fragrant substances, they lifted the corpse on to the pyre.


Mahākassapa’s Arrival


Now at that time Venerable Mahākassapa was traveling along the road from Pāvā to Kusinārā together with a large Saṅgha of five hundred mendicants. With the passing of Sāriputta and Moggallāna, Mahākassapa was the most senior of the remaining leading mendicants. As a solitary recluse, it was unusual for him to be travelling with such a large group, or with anyone at all really. He was to cite the events depicted here at the start of the First Council (Kd 21:1.1.1).Then he left the road and sat at the root of a tree.


Now at that time a certain Ājīvaka ascetic had picked up a Flame Tree flower in Kusinārā and was traveling along the road to Pāvā. A follower of the Bamboo-staffed Ascetic Gosāla (DN 2:19.1) | This may be an inspiration for the so-called “Flower Sermon”, a medieval Zen story that depicts the Buddha holding up a flower and Mahakassapa smiling.Mahākassapa saw him coming off in the distance and said to him, “Reverend, might you know about our Teacher?”


“Yes, reverend. Seven days ago the ascetic Gotama became fully extinguished. From there I picked up this Flame Tree flower.” Some of the mendicants there who were not free of desire, with arms raised, falling down like their feet were chopped off, rolling back and forth, lamented, “Too soon the Blessed One has become fully extinguished! Too soon the Holy One has become fully extinguished! Too soon the Eye of the World has vanished!” But the mendicants who were free of desire endured, mindful and aware, thinking, “Conditions are impermanent. How could it possibly be otherwise?”


Now at that time a monk named Subhadda, who had gone forth when old, was sitting in that assembly. He said to those mendicants, “Enough, reverends, do not grieve or lament. We’re well rid of that Great Ascetic. And we are oppressed: Compare Bu Pc 72. The syntax is clumsy here, perhaps deliberately so.‘This is allowable for you; this is not allowable for you.’ Well, now we shall do what we want and not do what we don’t want.”


Then Venerable Mahākassapa addressed the mendicants, “Enough, reverends, do not grieve or lament. Did the Buddha not prepare us for this when he explained that we must be parted and separated from all we hold dear and beloved? How could it possibly be so that what is born, created, conditioned, and liable to wear out should not wear out, even the Realized One’s body?”


Now at that time four of the leading Mallas, having bathed their heads and dressed in unworn clothes, said, “We shall light the Buddha’s funeral pyre.” But they were unable to do so.


The Mallas said to Anuruddha, “What is the cause, Venerable Anuruddha, what is the reason why these four Mallian chiefs are unable to light the Buddha’s funeral pyre?”

“Vāseṭṭhas, the deities have a different plan.”


“But sir, what is the deities’ plan?”


“The deities’ plan is this: Venerable Mahākassapa is traveling along the road from Pāvā to Kusinārā together with a large Saṅgha of five hundred mendicants. The Buddha’s funeral pyre shall not burn until he bows with his head at the Buddha’s feet.”


“Sir, let it be as the deities plan.”


Then Venerable Mahākassapa arrived at the Mallian shrine named Coronation at Kusinārā and approached the Buddha’s funeral pyre. Arranging his robe over one shoulder and raising his joined palms, he respectfully circled the Buddha three times, keeping him on his right, and bowed with his head at the Buddha’s feet. And the five hundred mendicants did likewise. And when Mahākassapa and the five hundred mendicants bowed the Buddha’s funeral pyre burst into flames all by itself.


And when the Buddha’s corpse was cremated no ash or soot was found from outer or inner skin, flesh, sinews, or synovial fluid. Only the relics remained. Here sarīrāneva is plural and so must mean “relics”, whereas previously it was singular, “corpse”.It’s like when ghee or oil blaze and burn, and neither ashes nor soot are found. In the same way, when the Buddha’s corpse was cremated no ash or soot was found from outer or inner skin, flesh, sinews, or synovial fluid. Only the relics remained. And of those five hundred pairs of garments only two were not burnt: the innermost and the outermost. But when the Buddha’s corpse was consumed the funeral pyre was extinguished by a stream of water that appeared in the sky, As when he was born (DN 14:1.28.1).by water dripping from the sal trees, and by the Mallas’ fragrant water.

Then the Mallas made a cage of spears for the Buddha’s relics in the meeting hall and surrounded it with a buttress of bows. For seven days they honored, respected, revered, and venerated them with dance and song and music and garlands and fragrances.


Distributing the Relics


King Ajātasattu of Magadha, son of the princess of Videha, heard Ajātasattu would have learned of the news from spies. It is a 600 km round trip to Rājagaha and back, which a mounted messenger could make in fourteen days.that the Buddha had become fully extinguished at Kusinārā. He sent an envoy to the Mallas of Kusinārā: “The Buddha was an aristocrat and so am I. I too deserve a share of the Buddha’s relics. I will build a monument for them and conduct a memorial service.” A bold move, considering that his designs on the Vajjis were no secret. Perhaps he was seeking a pretext for war. The justification for taking a share of relics is caste, rather than practice of the Dhamma.


The Licchavis of Vesālī also heard that the Buddha had become fully extinguished at Kusinārā. They sent an envoy to the Mallas of Kusinārā: “The Buddha was an aristocrat and so are we. We too deserve a share of the Buddha’s relics. We will build a monument for them and conduct a memorial service.”


The Sakyans of Kapilavatthu also heard that the Buddha had become fully extinguished at Kusinārā. They sent an envoy to the Mallas of Kusinārā: “The Buddha was our foremost relative. We too deserve a share of the Buddha’s relics. We will build a monument for them and conduct a memorial service.”


The Bulis of Allakappa also heard Both the tribe and the town are exceedingly obscure, mentioned nowhere else in early texts. They must have been a small clan nearby.that the Buddha had become fully extinguished at Kusinārā. They sent an envoy to the Mallas of Kusinārā: “The Buddha was an aristocrat and so are we. We too deserve a share of the Buddha’s relics. We will build a monument for them and conduct a memorial service.”


The Koḷiyans of Rāmagāma also heard The Koliyans were neighbors of the Sakyans, and several of their towns and people feature in the early texts.that the Buddha had become fully extinguished at Kusinārā. They sent an envoy to the Mallas of Kusinārā: “The Buddha was an aristocrat and so are we. We too deserve a share of the Buddha’s relics. We will build a monument for them and conduct a memorial service.”


The brahmin of Veṭhadīpa also heard This brahmin is mentioned nowhere else.that the Buddha had become fully extinguished at Kusinārā. He sent an envoy to the Mallas of Kusinārā: “The Buddha was an aristocrat and I am a brahmin. I too deserve a share of the Buddha’s relics. I will build a monument for them and conduct a memorial service.”


The Mallas of Pāvā also heard that the Buddha had become fully extinguished at Kusinārā. They sent an envoy to the Mallas of Kusinārā: “The Buddha was an aristocrat and so are we. We too deserve a share of the Buddha’s relics. We will build a monument for them and conduct a memorial service.”


When they had spoken, the Mallas of Kusinārā said to those various groups: “The Buddha became fully extinguished in our village district. We will not give away a share of his relics.” Dassāma (“we shall give”) is the future second plural of dadati.

Then Doṇa the brahmin said to those various groups: The brahmin Doṇa appears suddenly in the narrative, a reminder that there were many more people than the ones who are mentioned. The suttas record two encounters with a brahmin of this name: one is the wondrous story of seeing the Buddhas footprints (AN 4.36), while the other discusses the five kinds of brahmin (AN 5.192).

“Hear, sirs, a single word from me.Our Buddha’s teaching was acceptance.It would not be good to fight over The fear of war was justified and the resolution achieved by Doṇa probably marks the last time these parties achieved a diplomatic outcome. The relative peace that had lasted most of the Buddha’s life was crumbling. We hear of war or threats of war between the Kosalans and the Magadhans, the Magadhans and the Vajjis, the Sakyans and the Koliyans, the Kosalans and the Mallas, and the Kosalans and the Sakyans. It is probably because of the latter two conflicts that Viḍūḍabha—Pasenadi’s son and the newly crowned king of Kosala—did not send an emissary to the funeral. By sparking conflicts with former allies the Sakyans and Mallas, Viḍūḍabha undid the successes of his father and fatally weakened the Kosalan Empire. When the dust cleared a few decades later, all these lands had been consumed by Magadha.a share of the supreme person’s relics. Let us make eight portions, good sirs,rejoicing in unity and harmony.Let there be monuments far and wide, Thus begins the practice of establishing Buddhism by interring relics in a stupa.so many folk may gain faith in the Clear-eyed One!”

“Well then, brahmin, you yourself should fairly divide the Buddha’s relics in eight portions.”


“Yes, sirs,” replied Doṇa to those various groups. He divided the relics as asked and said to them, “Sirs, please give me the urn, and I shall build a monument for it and conduct a memorial service.” So they gave Doṇa the urn.


The Moriyas of Pippalivana heard The Moriyas were a minor clan of the region, unmentioned outside of this passage, but their obscurity was not to last long. About a century after these events, Chandragupta the Moriyan, having won the Magadhan crown from the Nandas, proceeded to route the Greeks in the west. His empire, which covered most of northern India, was further expanded to the south by his son Bindusara and grandson Ashoka, under whom the Mauryan Empire became the greatest of all Indian empires. Thus Ajātasattu’s expansionist dreams were ultimately fulfilled beyond his imagining.that the Buddha had become fully extinguished at Kusinārā. They sent an envoy to the Mallas of Kusinārā: “The Buddha was an aristocrat, and so are we. We too deserve a share of the Buddha’s relics. We will build a monument for them and conduct a memorial service.”


“There is no portion of the Buddha’s relics left, they have already been portioned out. Here, take the embers.” So they took the embers.


Venerating the Relics


Then King Ajātasattu of Magadha, The commentary says this summary was added at the Council.the Licchavis of Vesālī, the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu, the Bulis of Allakappa, the Koḷiyans of Rāmagāma, the brahmin of Veṭhadīpa, the Mallas of Pāvā, the Mallas of Kusinārā, the brahmin Doṇa, and the Moriyas of Pippalivana built monuments for them and conducted memorial services. Thus there were eight monuments for the relics, a ninth for the urn, and a tenth for the embers. That is how it was in the old days. The commentary says this line was added at the Third Council, which was held about 150 years after the Buddha under Ashoka. The Buddha’s life was already fading into legend.

There were eight sharesof the Clear-eyed One’s relics.According to the commentary, the remainder of the text was added by the monks of Sri Lanka. Note, however, that this verse and the next are fairly similar to those in the Sanskrit text. Since that is a northern text, it seems unlikely these verses were composed in Sri Lanka.Seven were worshipped throughout India.But one share of the most excellent of menwas worshipped in Rāmagāma by a dragon king. One tooth is veneratedby the gods of the Three and Thirty,and one is worshipped in the city of Gandhāra;another one in the realm of the Kaliṅga King,and one is worshipped by a dragon king. Through their glory this rich earthis adorned with the best of offerings. “Offering” is āyāga.Thus the Clear-eyed One’s corpseis well honored by the honorable. It’s venerated by lords of gods, dragons, and spirits;and likewise venerated by the finest lords of men.Honor it with joined palms when you get the chance,for a Buddha is rare even in a hundred eons. Altogether forty even teeth,and the body hair and head hair,were carried off individually by godsacross the universe.

Mahāparinibbānasutta DN 16 https://suttacentral.net/dn16

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Guest
Oct 03, 2023
Rated 5 out of 5 stars.

🙏🙏🙏 Sadhu khanoi

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Thonglouane Keorajavongsay
Thonglouane Keorajavongsay
Aug 08, 2023

💐🙏🙏🙏💐 for super important Sutta of Buddha’s words kanoi

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